Request PDF on ResearchGate | The Late Viking-Age Royal Constructions at Jelling, central Jutland, Denmark. | Der königliche Komplex in Jelling mit seinen. Networks and nodal points: the emergence of towns in early Viking Age Scandinavia - Volume 81 Issue - Søren M. Sindbæk. Aug 8, Abstract: Der königliche Komplex in Jelling mit seinen monumentalen Verweisen auf königliche Macht und Christianisierung ist als. Dirt 4 trainer the wta hong kong century, Scandinavians mainly Norwegians began to colonize Iceland, inui island in the North Atlantic where no one had yet settled in large numbers. The longship facilitated far-reaching expeditions, but the Vikings aamir khan boxer constructed several other types of ships. In England romme gametwist Viking Age began dramatically on 8 June when Norsemen destroyed the abbey on the island of Lindisfarne. Falls ihr Probleme, Feedback oder Wünsche habt, bloodsuckers mir an: In some of their raids they were crushed either by Kingdom of Asturias or Emirate armies.
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In , a large Norse fleet invaded via the River Tay and River Earn , both of which were highly navigable, and reached into the heart of the Pictish kingdom of Fortriu.
The Norse settlers were to some extent integrating with the local Gaelic population see Norse-Gaels in the Hebrides and Man.
These areas were ruled over by local Jarls , originally captains of ships or hersirs. The Jarl of Orkney and Shetland, however, claimed supremacy.
In his attempt to unite Norway, he found that many of those opposed to his rise to power had taken refuge in the Isles.
From here, they were raiding not only foreign lands but were also attacking Norway itself. He organised a fleet and was able to subdue the rebels, and in doing so brought the independent Jarls under his control, many of the rebels having fled to Iceland.
He found himself ruling not only Norway, but also the Isles, Man, and parts of Scotland. A fleet was sent against them led by Ketil Flatnose to regain control.
On his success, Ketil was to rule the Sudreys as a vassal of King Harald. His grandson Thorstein the Red and Sigurd the Mighty , Jarl of Orkney invaded Scotland were able to exact tribute from nearly half the kingdom until their deaths in battle.
Ketil declared himself King of the Isles. Ketil was eventually outlawed and fearing the bounty on his head fled to Iceland.
The Norse-Gaelic Kings of the Isles continued to act semi independently, in forming a defensive pact with the Kings of Scotland and Strathclyde.
Magnus and King Edgar of Scotland agreed on a treaty. The islands would be controlled by Norway, but mainland territories would go to Scotland.
The King of Norway nominally continued to be king of the Isles and Man. However, in , The kingdom was split into two. His kingdom was to develop latterly into the Lordship of the Isles.
In eastern Aberdeenshire , the Danes invaded at least as far north as the area near Cruden Bay. The Jarls of Orkney continued to rule much of northern Scotland until , when Harald Maddadsson agreed to pay tribute to William the Lion , King of Scots, for his territories on the mainland.
The end of the Viking age proper in Scotland is generally considered to be in After peace talks failed, his forces met with the Scots at Largs , in Ayrshire.
The battle proved indecisive, but it did ensure that the Norse were not able to mount a further attack that year. Orkney and Shetland continued to be ruled as autonomous Jarldoms under Norway until , when King Christian I pledged them as security on the dowry of his daughter, who was betrothed to James III of Scotland.
Wales was not colonised by the Vikings as heavily as eastern England. The Vikings did, however, settle in the south around St. Place names such as Skokholm, Skomer, and Swansea remain as evidence of the Norse settlement.
According to Sagas, Iceland was discovered by Naddodd , a Viking from the Faroe Islands, after which it was settled by mostly Norwegians fleeing the oppressive rule of Harald Fairhair late 9th century.
While harsh, the land allowed for a pastoral farming life familiar to the Norse. According to the saga of Erik the Red , when Erik was exiled from Iceland, he sailed west and pioneered Greenland.
The Viking-Age settlements in Greenland were established in the sheltered fjords of the southern and western coast. While harsh, the microclimates along some fjords allowed for a pastoral lifestyle similar to that of Iceland, until the climate changed for the worse with the Little Ice Age around A contemporary reference to Kvenland is provided in an Old English account written in the 9th century.
It used the information provided by the Norwegian adventurer and traveller named Ohthere. Kvenland, in that or close to that spelling, is also known from Nordic sources, primarily Icelandic, but also one that was possibly written in the modern-day area of Norway.
All the remaining Nordic sources discussing Kvenland, using that or close to that spelling, date to the 12th and 13th centuries, but some of them—in part at least—are believed to be rewrites of older texts.
The Varangians or Varyags Russian , Ukrainian: Engaging in trade , piracy , and mercenary activities, they roamed the river systems and portages of Gardariki , reaching the Caspian Sea and Constantinople.
Contemporary English publications also use the name " Viking " for early Varangians in some contexts. The term Varangian remained in usage in the Byzantine Empire until the 13th century, largely disconnected from its Scandinavian roots by then.
It was the time of rapid expansion of the Vikings in Northern Europe; England began to pay Danegeld in , and the Curonians of Grobin faced an invasion by the Swedes at about the same date.
In , the Finnic and Slavic tribes rebelled against the Varangian Rus, driving them overseas back to Scandinavia, but soon started to conflict with each other.
As the Volga route declined by the end of the century, the Trade route from the Varangians to the Greeks rapidly overtook it in popularity.
In contrast to the intense Scandinavian influence in Normandy and the British Isles, Varangian culture did not survive to a great extent in the East.
Instead, the Varangian ruling classes of the two powerful city-states of Novgorod and Kiev were thoroughly Slavicised by the end of the 10th century.
Old Norse was spoken in one district of Novgorod, however, until the 13th century. Viking Age Scandinavian settlements were set up along the southern coast of the Baltic Sea , primarily for trade purposes.
Their appearance coincides with the settlement and consolidation of the Slavic tribes in the respective areas. Scandinavian arrowheads from the 8th and 9th centuries were found between the coast and the lake chains in the Mecklenburgian and Pomeranian hinterlands, pointing at periods of warfare between the Scandinavians and Slavs.
Norman in the Norwegian language , denotes a Norwegian person. The first Viking raids began between and along the coasts of western France.
They were carried out primarily in the summer, as the Vikings wintered in Scandinavia. Several coastal areas were lost to Francia during the reign of Louis the Pious — But the Vikings took advantage of the quarrels in the royal family caused after the death of Louis the Pious to settle their first colony in the south-west Gascony of the kingdom of Francia, which was more or less abandoned by the Frankish kings after their two defeats at Roncevaux.
In an expedition up the Seine reached Paris. The presence of Carolingian deniers of ca , found in among a hoard at Mullaghboden, County Limerick, where coins were neither minted nor normally used in trade, probably represents booty from the raids of — Twice more in the s Vikings rowed to Paris, leaving only when they acquired sufficient loot or bribes from the Carolingian rulers.
The Carolingian kings tended to have contradictory politics, which had severe consequences. In exchange, Rollo pledged vassalage to Charles in , agreed to be baptised , and vowed to guard the estuaries of the Seine from further Viking attacks, even though the exact opposite was often the case.
The Duchy of Normandy also annexed further areas in Northern France, expanding the territory which was originally negotiated. While many buildings were pillaged, burned, or destroyed by the Viking raids, ecclesiastical sources may have been overly negative as no city was completely destroyed.
Rollo and his successors brought about rapid recoveries from the raids. The Scandinavian colonization was principally Norwegian and Danish under the leadership of Rollo.
A few Swedes were present. The merging of the Scandinavian and native elements contributed to the creation of one of the most powerful feudal states of Western Europe.
The naval ability of the Normans would allow them to conquer England and southern Italy , and play a key role in the Crusades.
The Vikings then moved another 60 miles down the Tuscan coast to the mouth of the Arno , sacking Pisa and then, following the river upstream, also the hill-town of Fiesole above Florence ; and others victory around the Mediterranean including in Sicily and North Africa.
After , when the Vikings set up a permanent base at the mouth of the Loire river, they could strike as far as northern Spain. In some of their raids they were crushed either by Kingdom of Asturias or Emirate armies.
These Vikings were Hispanicised in all Christian kingdoms, while they kept their ethnic identity and culture in Al-Andalus.
In , a Viking fleet entered the river Minho and sacked the episcopal city of Tui Galicia ; no new bishop was appointed until In , many dozens of drakkars appeared in the "Mar da Palha" "the Sea of Straw", mouth of the Tagus river.
After a siege, the Vikings conquered Lisbon at the time, the city was under Muslim rule and known as Lashbuna. Another raid was attempted in , without success.
Conflict with indigenous peoples and lack of support from Greenland brought the Vinland colony to an end within a few years. The long-term linguistic effect of the Viking settlements in England was threefold: The system of personal pronouns was affected, with they, them and their replacing the earlier forms.
Old Norse influenced the verb to be ; the replacement of sindon by are is almost certainly Scandinavian in origin, as is the third-person-singular ending -s in the present tense of verbs.
There are more than 1, Scandinavian place names in England, mainly in Yorkshire and Lincolnshire within the former boundaries of the Danelaw: The distribution of family names showing Scandinavian influence is still, as an analysis of names ending in -son reveals, concentrated in the north and east, corresponding to areas of former Viking settlement.
The Vikings were equipped with the technologically superior longships; for purposes of conducting trade however, another type of ship, the knarr , wider and deeper in draft, were customarily used.
The Vikings were competent sailors, adept in land warfare as well as at sea, and they often struck at accessible and poorly defended targets, usually with near impunity.
The effectiveness of these tactics earned Vikings a formidable reputation as raiders and pirates. Chroniclers paid little attention to other aspects of medieval Scandinavian culture.
This slant was accentuated by the absence of contemporary primary source documentation from within the Viking Age communities themselves.
Little documentary evidence was available until later, when Christian sources began to contribute. As historians and archaeologists have developed more resources to challenge the one-sided descriptions of the chroniclers, a more balanced picture of the Norsemen has become apparent.
The Vikings used their longships to travel vast distances and attain certain tactical advantages in battle. Sails for Viking ships required large amounts of wool, as evidenced by experimental archaeology.
There are archaeological signs of organised textile productions in Scandinavia, reaching as far back as the early Iron Ages.
Artisans and craftsmen in the larger towns were supplied with antlers from organised hunting with large-scale reindeer traps in the far north.
They were used as raw material for making everyday utensils like combs. In England the Viking Age began dramatically on 8 June when Norsemen destroyed the abbey on the island of Lindisfarne.
Not until the s did scholars outside Scandinavia begin to seriously reassess the achievements of the Vikings, recognizing their artistry, technological skills, and seamanship.
Norse Mythology , sagas, and literature tell of Scandinavian culture and religion through tales of heroic and mythological heroes.
Many of these sagas were written in Iceland, and most of them, even if they had no Icelandic provenance, were preserved there after the Middle Ages due to the continued interest of Icelanders in Norse literature and law codes.
The year Viking influence on European history is filled with tales of plunder and colonisation, and the majority of these chronicles came from western witnesses and their descendants.
Less common, though equally relevant, are the Viking chronicles that originated in the east, including the Nestor chronicles, Novgorod chronicles, Ibn Fadlan chronicles, Ibn Rusta chronicles, and brief mentions by Photius , patriarch of Constantinople, regarding their first attack on the Byzantine Empire.
Other chroniclers of Viking history include Adam of Bremen , who wrote, in the fourth volume of his Gesta Hammaburgensis Ecclesiae Pontificum , "[t]here is much gold here in Zealand , accumulated by piracy.
These pirates, which are called wichingi by their own people, and Ascomanni by our own people, pay tribute to the Danish king.
Early modern publications, dealing with what is now called Viking culture, appeared in the 16th century, e. Historia de gentibus septentrionalibus Olaus Magnus, , and the first edition of the 13th-century Gesta Danorum of Saxo Grammaticus in An important early British contributor to the study of the Vikings was George Hicke, who published his Linguarum vett.
During the 18th century, British interest and enthusiasm for Iceland and early Scandinavian culture grew dramatically, expressed in English translations of Old Norse texts and in original poems that extolled the supposed Viking virtues.
The word "viking" was first popularised at the beginning of the 19th century by Erik Gustaf Geijer in his poem, The Viking.
The renewed interest of Romanticism in the Old North had contemporary political implications. The Geatish Society , of which Geijer was a member, popularised this myth to a great extent.
Fascination with the Vikings reached a peak during the so-called Viking revival in the late 18th and 19th centuries as a branch of Romantic nationalism.
In Britain this was called Septentrionalism, in Germany " Wagnerian " pathos, and in the Scandinavian countries Scandinavism. The new dictionaries of the Old Norse language enabled the Victorians to grapple with the primary Icelandic sagas.
Few scholars still accept these texts as reliable sources, as historians now rely more on archaeology and numismatics , disciplines that have made valuable contributions toward understanding the period.
The romanticised idea of the Vikings constructed in scholarly and popular circles in northwestern Europe in the 19th and early 20th centuries was a potent one, and the figure of the Viking became a familiar and malleable symbol in different contexts in the politics and political ideologies of 20th-century Europe.
In Germany, awareness of Viking history in the 19th century had been stimulated by the border dispute with Denmark over Schleswig-Holstein and the use of Scandinavian mythology by Richard Wagner.
The idealised view of the Vikings appealed to Germanic supremacists who transformed the figure of the Viking in accordance with the ideology of the Germanic master race.
The cultural phenomenon of Viking expansion was re-interpreted for use as propaganda to support the extreme militant nationalism of the Third Reich, and ideologically informed interpretations of Viking paganism and the Scandinavian use of runes were employed in the construction of Nazi mysticism.
Other political organisations of the same ilk, such as the former Norwegian fascist party Nasjonal Samling , similarly appropriated elements of the modern Viking cultural myth in their symbolism and propaganda.
Vikings appear in several books by the Danish American writer Poul Anderson , while British explorer, historian, and writer Tim Severin authored a trilogy of novels in about a young Viking adventurer Thorgils Leifsson, who travels around the world.
The character is featured in the Marvel Studios film Thor and its sequels Thor: The Dark World and Thor: The character also appears in the film The Avengers and its associated animated series.
Since the s, there has been rising enthusiasm for historical reenactment. While the earliest groups had little claim for historical accuracy, the seriousness and accuracy of reenactors has increased.
Many reenactor groups participate in live-steel combat, and a few have Viking-style ships or boats. Modern reconstructions of Viking mythology have shown a persistent influence in late 20th- and early 21st-century popular culture in some countries, inspiring comics, role-playing games, computer games, and music, including Viking metal , a subgenre of heavy metal music.
Apart from two or three representations of ritual helmets—with protrusions that may be either stylised ravens, snakes, or horns—no depiction of the helmets of Viking warriors, and no preserved helmet, has horns.
Historians therefore believe that Viking warriors did not wear horned helmets; whether such helmets were used in Scandinavian culture for other, ritual purposes, remains unproven.
The Vikings were often depicted with winged helmets and in other clothing taken from Classical antiquity , especially in depictions of Norse gods.
This was done to legitimise the Vikings and their mythology by associating it with the Classical world, which had long been idealised in European culture.
The latter-day mythos created by national romantic ideas blended the Viking Age with aspects of the Nordic Bronze Age some 2, years earlier.
They were probably used for ceremonial purposes. Viking helmets were conical, made from hard leather with wood and metallic reinforcement for regular troops.
The iron helmet with mask and mail was for the chieftains, based on the previous Vendel -age helmets from central Sweden. The only original Viking helmet discovered is the Gjermundbu helmet , found in Norway.
This helmet is made of iron and has been dated to the 10th century. The image of wild-haired, dirty savages sometimes associated with the Vikings in popular culture is a distorted picture of reality.
There is no evidence that Vikings drank out of the skulls of vanquished enemies. This was a reference to drinking horns , but was mistranslated in the 17th century  as referring to the skulls of the slain.
Studies of genetic diversity provide indication of the origin and expansion of the Norse population. Haplogroup I-M defined by specific genetic markers on the Y chromosome mutation occurs with the greatest frequency among Scandinavian males: Female descent studies show evidence of Norse descent in areas closest to Scandinavia, such as the Shetland and Orkney islands.
A specialised genetic and surname study in Liverpool showed marked Norse heritage: Recent research suggests that the Celtic warrior Somerled , who drove the Vikings out of western Scotland and was the progenitor of Clan Donald , may have been of Viking descent , a member of haplogroup R-M From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
For other uses, see Viking disambiguation. Old Norse and The Norse Sagas. The Lingsberg Runestone in Sweden. Runic inscriptions of the larger of the Jelling Stones in Denmark.
Two types of Norse runestones from the Viking Age. Norse funeral and Ship burial. Burial mounds Gamla Uppsala. Examples of Viking burial mounds and stone set graves, collectively known as tumuli.
The longship facilitated far-reaching expeditions, but the Vikings also constructed several other types of ships. Viking Age arms and armour.
Trade route from the Varangians to the Greeks and Volga trade route. Retrieved 30 September Viking, also called Norseman or Northman, member of the Scandinavian seafaring warriors who raided and colonized wide areas of Europe from the 9th to the 11th century and whose disruptive influence profoundly affected European history.
These pagan Danish, Norwegian, and Swedish warriors were Lepel Regional Executive Committee. Did Swedish Vikings really found Kyiv Rus?
Visby Sweden , n. Skeat , published in , defined Viking: Skeat; Clarendon press; p. An etymological contribution" PDF. Retrieved 20 April Principles of English Etymology Clarendon press, p.
Retrieved 17 March Ships and Men in the Late Viking Age: A reply to Harald Bjorvand". Centre of Medieval Studies University of Bergen.
Boas 13 May The University of Texas at Austin. Archived from the original on 7 April Retrieved 23 April Saga-book of the Viking Society. A private homepage project.
National Museum of Denmark. Nicolle, D, Turnbull, S Viking era AD— AD" www. The Scandinavians in history Pg. Retrieved 6 April Retrieved 21 May Archived from the original PDF on 18 July Retrieved 11 May Penguin Historical Atlas of the Vikings , Penguin Scandinavia and Europe AD — Archeologists Find Gateway to the Viking Empire".
Retrieved 27 February Retrieved 20 December A bibliography of French-language", Caen, Centre for research on the countries of the North and Northwest, University of Caen, , p.
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An Encyclopedia Illustrated ed. Archived from the original PDF on 19 April Retrieved 22 February Secrets of Viking Ships Viking Longship Osprey Publishing, Oxford, Retrieved 23 June Folkekost og sundhedsforhold i gamle dage.
Belyst igennem den oldnordiske Litteratur. Diet and health in previous times, as revealed in the Old Norse Literature, especially the Icelandic Sagas.
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The Jorvik Viking Centre. University of Southern Denmark. Retrieved 14 November Archived from the original on 30 March Journal of Archaeological Science: Encyclopedia of the Ancient World.
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Retrieved 7 September Retrieved 10 April In return, Rollo swore fealty to Charles, converted to Christianity, and swore to defend the northern region of France against raids by other Viking groups.
Several generations later, the Norman descendants of these Viking settlers identified themselves as French and brought the French language and their variant of French culture to England in At the start of the Viking age, the Vikings adhered to the Norse religion and system of beliefs.
They believed in a pantheon of gods and goddesses, as well as Valhalla , a heaven for warriors. The lower class of society would go to a place called "hel", similar to life on earth.
According to Viking beliefs, Viking chieftains would please their war-gods by their bravery, and would become "worth-ship"; that is, the chieftain would earn a "burial at sea".
They also performed land burials which often still included a ship, treasure, weapons, tools, clothing and even slaves and women buried alive with the dead chieftain, for his journey to Valhalla and adventure in the after-life.
Poets composed sagas about the exploits of these chieftains, keeping their memories alive. Freyr and his sister Freya were fertility gods.
They made sure that people had many children and that the land produced plenty of crops. Some farmers even called their fields after Freyr, in the hope that this would ensure a good harvest.
Toward the end of the Viking Age, more and more Scandinavians were converted to Christianity, often by force. The introduction of Christianity did not immediately end Viking voyages, but it may have been a factor that helped the Viking Age to an end.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. American Heritage Dictionary, 4th ed. Retrieved from " https: Articles with broken Wiktionary links Commons category link is on Wikidata.
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