citypicnic.eu hat aktuelle Nachrichten aus den Bereichen: Politik, Berlin. citypicnic.eu ist das offizielle Online-Portal des Münchner Merkur und seiner Heimatzeitungen. citypicnic.eu: News aus München, Oberbayern und der Welt. Der Münchner Merkur ist eine bayerische Abonnement-Zeitung mit Sitz in München und gehört zur Mediengruppe Münchner Merkur/tz des westfälischen. Christian Demand und Ekkehard Knörer. Es ging ihm nicht schnell genug: Fünf Flüchtlingshelfer berichten im Interview mit dem Münchner Merkur über Integrations-Erfolge, Enttäuschungen — und darüber, wie sich die Willkommenskultur seit …. Schäuble sieht in der Flüchtlingspolitik auch einen wichtigen Grund für den Aufstieg der Rechtspopulisten. Die erste Ausgabe des Merkur erschien Erst drängelte er, dann stieg er plötzlich aus - und …. May glaube noch daran, einen Plan durchzusetzen, meint Begg: Ok Um Ihnen ein besseres Nutzererlebnis zu bieten, verwenden wir Cookies. Wie britische Zeitungen berichteten, ähnelt der Alternativplan jedoch stark dem vor knapp einer Woche vom Parlament abgelehnten Entwurf. Die Anwohner wehren sich gegen die Wildcamper. Februar keine Mehrheit für ein Austrittsabkommen finden. Die Premierministerin wolle dadurch die Auffanglösung umgehen. Folgen des Brexits wären beherrschbar.
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Water vapor is present, released by a combination of processes such as: Sodium, potassium and calcium were discovered in the atmosphere during the —s, and are thought to result primarily from the vaporization of surface rock struck by micrometeorite impacts  including presently from Comet Encke.
Despite its small size and slow day-long rotation, Mercury has a significant, and apparently global, magnetic field. According to measurements taken by Mariner 10 , it is about 1.
It is likely that this magnetic field is generated by a dynamo effect, in a manner similar to the magnetic field of Earth. The spacecraft encountered magnetic "tornadoes" — twisted bundles of magnetic fields connecting the planetary magnetic field to interplanetary space — that were up to km wide or a third of the radius of the planet.
Mercury has the most eccentric orbit of all the planets; its eccentricity is 0. As a result, transits of Mercury across the face of the Sun can only occur when the planet is crossing the plane of the ecliptic at the time it lies between Earth and the Sun.
This occurs about every seven years on average. Thus, to a hypothetical observer on Mercury, the Sun appears to move in a retrograde direction.
In the other alternate Mercurian years, the same thing happens at the other of these two points. The amplitude of the retrograde motion is small, so the overall effect is that, for two or three weeks, the Sun is almost stationary overhead, and is at its most brilliant because Mercury is at perihelion, its closest to the Sun.
This prolonged exposure to the Sun at its brightest makes these two points the hottest places on Mercury. These points, which are the ones on the equator where the apparent retrograde motion of the Sun happens when it is crossing the horizon as described in the preceding paragraph, receive much less solar heat than the first ones described above.
Mercury can come as near as The next approach to within The longitude convention for Mercury puts the zero of longitude at one of the two hottest points on the surface, as described above.
However, when this area was first visited, by Mariner 10 , this zero meridian was in darkness, so it was impossible to select a feature on the surface to define the exact position of the meridian.
Therefore, a small crater further west was chosen, called Hun Kal , which provides the exact reference point for measuring longitude.
A International Astronomical Union resolution suggests that longitudes be measured positively in the westerly direction on Mercury. For many years it was thought that Mercury was synchronously tidally locked with the Sun, rotating once for each orbit and always keeping the same face directed towards the Sun, in the same way that the same side of the Moon always faces Earth.
Radar observations in proved that the planet has a 3: The original reason astronomers thought it was synchronously locked was that, whenever Mercury was best placed for observation, it was always nearly at the same point in its 3: Simulations indicate that the orbital eccentricity of Mercury varies chaotically from nearly zero circular to more than 0.
The success of the search for Neptune based on its perturbations of the orbit of Uranus led astronomers to place faith in this possible explanation, and the hypothetical planet was named Vulcan , but no such planet was ever found.
The perihelion precession of Mercury is 5, arcseconds 1. Newtonian mechanics, taking into account all the effects from the other planets, predicts a precession of 5, arcseconds 1.
The effect is small: Similar, but much smaller, effects exist for other Solar System bodies: Filling in the values gives a result of 0. Mercury can be observed for only a brief period during either morning or evening twilight.
Mercury can, like several other planets and the brightest stars, be seen during a total solar eclipse. Like the Moon and Venus, Mercury exhibits phases as seen from Earth.
It is "new" at inferior conjunction and "full" at superior conjunction. The planet is rendered invisible from Earth on both of these occasions because of its being obscured by the Sun,  except its new phase during a transit.
Mercury is technically brightest as seen from Earth when it is at a full phase. Although Mercury is farthest from Earth when it is full, the greater illuminated area that is visible and the opposition brightness surge more than compensates for the distance.
Nonetheless, the brightest full phase appearance of Mercury is an essentially impossible time for practical observation, because of the extreme proximity of the Sun.
Mercury is best observed at the first and last quarter, although they are phases of lesser brightness. The first and last quarter phases occur at greatest elongation east and west of the Sun, respectively.
Mercury can be easily seen from the tropics and subtropics more than from higher latitudes. Viewed from low latitudes and at the right times of year, the ecliptic intersects the horizon at a steep angle.
At middle latitudes , Mercury is more often and easily visible from the Southern Hemisphere than from the Northern. An alternate method for viewing Mercury involves observing the planet during daylight hours when conditions are clear, ideally when it is at its greatest elongation.
This method bypasses the limitation of twilight observing when the ecliptic is located at a low elevation e. Ground-based telescope observations of Mercury reveal only an illuminated partial disk with limited detail.
The Hubble Space Telescope cannot observe Mercury at all, due to safety procedures that prevent its pointing too close to the Sun. Because the shift of 0.
The earliest known recorded observations of Mercury are from the Mul. These observations were most likely made by an Assyrian astronomer around the 14th century BC.
Apin tablets is transcribed as Udu. Ud "the jumping planet". The Babylonians called the planet Nabu after the messenger to the gods in their mythology.
The Roman-Egyptian astronomer Ptolemy wrote about the possibility of planetary transits across the face of the Sun in his work Planetary Hypotheses.
He suggested that no transits had been observed either because planets such as Mercury were too small to see, or because the transits were too infrequent.
It was associated with the direction north and the phase of water in the Five Phases system of metaphysics. In India, the Kerala school astronomer Nilakantha Somayaji in the 15th century developed a partially heliocentric planetary model in which Mercury orbits the Sun, which in turn orbits Earth, similar to the Tychonic system later proposed by Tycho Brahe in the late 16th century.
The first telescopic observations of Mercury were made by Galileo in the early 17th century. Although he observed phases when he looked at Venus, his telescope was not powerful enough to see the phases of Mercury.
In , Pierre Gassendi made the first telescopic observations of the transit of a planet across the Sun when he saw a transit of Mercury predicted by Johannes Kepler.
In , Giovanni Zupi used a telescope to discover that the planet had orbital phases similar to Venus and the Moon. The observation demonstrated conclusively that Mercury orbited around the Sun.
A rare event in astronomy is the passage of one planet in front of another occultation , as seen from Earth. Mercury and Venus occult each other every few centuries, and the event of May 28, is the only one historically observed, having been seen by John Bevis at the Royal Greenwich Observatory.
The difficulties inherent in observing Mercury mean that it has been far less studied than the other planets.
The effort to map the surface of Mercury was continued by Eugenios Antoniadi , who published a book in that included both maps and his own observations.
In June , Soviet scientists at the Institute of Radio-engineering and Electronics of the USSR Academy of Sciences , led by Vladimir Kotelnikov , became the first to bounce a radar signal off Mercury and receive it, starting radar observations of the planet.
If Mercury were tidally locked, its dark face would be extremely cold, but measurements of radio emission revealed that it was much hotter than expected.
Astronomers were reluctant to drop the synchronous rotation theory and proposed alternative mechanisms such as powerful heat-distributing winds to explain the observations.
Ground-based optical observations did not shed much further light on Mercury, but radio astronomers using interferometry at microwave wavelengths, a technique that enables removal of the solar radiation, were able to discern physical and chemical characteristics of the subsurface layers to a depth of several meters.
Moreover, recent technological advances have led to improved ground-based observations. In , high-resolution lucky imaging observations were conducted by the Mount Wilson Observatory 1.
They provided the first views that resolved surface features on the parts of Mercury that were not imaged in the Mariner 10 mission.
Reaching Mercury from Earth poses significant technical challenges, because it orbits so much closer to the Sun than Earth. Therefore, the spacecraft must make a large change in velocity delta-v to enter a Hohmann transfer orbit that passes near Mercury, as compared to the delta-v required for other planetary missions.
To land safely or enter a stable orbit the spacecraft would rely entirely on rocket motors. Aerobraking is ruled out because Mercury has a negligible atmosphere.
A trip to Mercury requires more rocket fuel than that required to escape the Solar System completely. As a result, only two space probes have visited it so far.
The second close approach was primarily used for imaging, but at the third approach, extensive magnetic data were obtained. On March 24, , just eight days after its final close approach, Mariner 10 ran out of fuel.
Because its orbit could no longer be accurately controlled, mission controllers instructed the probe to shut down. It made a fly-by of Earth in August , and of Venus in October and June to place it onto the correct trajectory to reach an orbit around Mercury.
The probe successfully entered an elliptical orbit around the planet on March 18, The first orbital image of Mercury was obtained on March 29, The probe finished a one-year mapping mission,  and then entered a one-year extended mission into The mission was designed to clear up six key issues: To this end, the probe carried imaging devices that gathered much-higher-resolution images of much more of Mercury than Mariner 10 , assorted spectrometers to determine abundances of elements in the crust, and magnetometers and devices to measure velocities of charged particles.
Both probes will operate for one terrestrial year. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Mercury disambiguation.
Smallest and closest planet to the Sun in the Solar System. Moment of inertia factor. Perihelion precession of Mercury.
Size comparison with other Solar System objects. Mercury, Venus , Earth , Mars. Mars , Mercury Front: Moon , Pluto , Haumea.
Pluto is also smaller than Mercury, but was thought to be larger until The "4" is a reference number in the Sumero-Akkadian transliteration system to designate which of several syllables a certain cuneiform sign is most likely designating.
Retrieved December 15, Retrieved June 12, Archived from the original on March 28, Retrieved May 28, Archived from the original on May 14, Retrieved April 3, Retrieved April 7, Orbital Elements", "Time Span: Sun" should be defaulted to.
Results are instantaneous osculating values at the precise J epoch. Kenneth; Archinal, Brent A. Celestial Mechanics and Dynamical Astronomy.
Journal of Geophysical Research: Figure 3 with the "TWO model"; Figure 5 for pole. Archived from the original on November 6, Retrieved January 27, Archived from the original on September 11, Retrieved July 27, Archived from the original on May 3, Retrieved April 30, Retrieved January 23, Retrieved January 22, Archived from the original on September 29, Retrieved November 26, Astrophysics and Space Science.
Retrieved May 12, National Radio Astronomy Observatory. Planetary and Space Science. National Geographic Society, 2nd edition.
Abstracts of the 25th Lunar and Planetary Science Conference. Time to rewrite the textbooks". The Christian Science Monitor.
Retrieved August 21, Retrieved June 9, Retrieved April 11, Retrieved August 20, McElroy July 12, Space Environment, Surface, and Interior, Chicago Retrieved December 22, Earth, Moon, and Planets.
Journal of Geophysical Research. Evidence for the Presence of Ferrous Iron". Lunar and Planetary Science. Space Environment, Surface, and Interior.
Proceedings of a workshop held at The Field Museum. Lunar and Planetary Science Institute. Retrieved September 28, Eruption conditions, magma volatile content, and implications for interior volatile abundances".
Earth and Planetary Science Letters. Merkur Scorpios included many standard features and most were sold with the optional Touring Package upgrade.
In contrast to the XR4Ti, the Merkur Scorpio was built directly on the Ford Cologne assembly line in West Germany, as its body was not changed with the exception of 5-mph bumpers and US-market lighting.
Powertrain modifications were minimal, as the 2. While a 5-speed manual transmission was standard, nearly every example was equipped with a 4-speed automatic transmission.
One of the shortest-lived vehicles ever produced by Ford Motor Company, the Merkur Scorpio was discontinued at the end of the model year, marking the end of the Merkur brand.
European Sierras were available in three-door hatchback, five-door hatchback, four-door sedan, and five-door station wagon versions, and even a pickup truck called the P Engines available ranged from a 1.
According to British government test figures, fuel efficient models such as the 1. The Sierra XR range and the Cosworth models, however, are not viewed as sales flops in Europe, despite individual models selling fewer cars than the XR4Ti.
Like the Sierra, the Scorpio was also introduced to replace another popular model, the Ford Granada. In the UK and Ireland, the Granada name was still used, with the Scorpio name reserved for the top of the range Granada models.
The Scorpio started as a five-door hatchback, and it later became available as a four-door sedan and a five-door wagon. An "executive express" in the form of the Scorpio Cosworth was produced, powered by a 2.
This featured 16" aluminum alloy wheels similar to the AMG Mercedes wheels, a rear spoiler, and additional ground effects.
On average, each Lincoln-Mercury dealer sold one to two Merkur vehicles. Several factors led to the slow sales of the Merkur line, including an unfavorable exchange rate between the dollar and the West German Deutsche mark , leading to unstable pricing.
By , the Merkur Scorpio rivaled the Lincoln Town Car in price, despite its strong visual resemblance to the far more affordable Mercury Sable both sold on the same showroom floor.
At the end of , the decision to drop the Merkur line was driven by future passive restraint requirements in North America.
To bring the XR4Ti and Scorpio into compliance, the model lines would have needed airbag s or a passive restraint system automatic seatbelts to do so.
As the slow sales of the model line no longer justified the expense of such a redesign their European counterparts would not receive airbags until they were replaced in , Ford chose to end the Merkur line, withdrawing the XR4Ti in early with the Scorpio following at the end of the model year.
The name represents the crew that looked and seemed awesome, but "completely fell apart and the dashboard lit up like a Christmas tree at 15, miles.
Right after the warranty expired. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Merkur disambiguation. Not to be confused with Mercury automobile.
This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.
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